This book demonstrates the contribution that statistics can and should make to linguistic studies.The range of work to which statistical analysis is applicable is vast︰including，for example，language acquisition，language variation and many aspects of applied linguistics，The aubhors give a wide variety of linguixtic examples to demonstrate the use of statistics in summarising data in the most appropriate way，and then making helpful inferences form the processed information. Students and resesarchers in many fields of linguistics will find this book an invaluable introduction to the use of statistics，and a practical text tor the development of skils in the application of statistics.
Preface by Halliday王宗炎序導讀Preface 1 Why do linguists need statistics? 2 Tables and graphs2.1 Categorical data2.2 Numerical data2.3 Multi-Way tables2.4 Special cases Summary Exercises 3 Summary measures3.1 The median3.2 The arithmetic mean3.3 The mean and the median compared3.4 Means of proportions and percentages3.5 Variability or dispersion3.6 Central intervals3.7 The variance and the standard deviation3.8 Standardising test scores Summary Exercises 4 Statistical inference4.1 The problem4.2 Populations4.3 The theoretical solution4.4 The pragmatic solution Summary Exercises …… 5 Probability 6 Modeling statistical populations 7 Estimating form samples 8 Testing hypotheses about population values 9 Testing the fit of models to data 10 Measuring the degree of interdependence between 11 Testing for differences between two populations 12 Analysis of variance-ANOVA 13 Linear regression 14 Searching for groups and clusters 15 Princial components analysis and factor andlysis
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