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認知、腦與意識


图书基本信息
出版时间:2012-1
出版时间:科學出版社
作者:巴爾斯
页数:653
书名:認知、腦與意識
封面图片
認知、腦與意識
内容概要
  《認知、腦與意識︰認知神經科學導論》(第二版)以獨特的主題式寫作手法闡述了認知神經科學的基本概念。章節設置循序漸進,引導讀者沿著一條清晰的主線了解該領域的最新進展。基礎教育領域的諸多專業要求學生對認知神經科學具備基本的理解。然而,目前多數教科書都是為生物學專業的學生準備的,很少考慮心理學和其他相關專業的讀者。這本教材由認知神經科學領域的兩位權威BernardJ.Baars和NicoleM.Gage擔任主編,意在填補這一空缺,使讀者無需神經科學或生物學背景也可以輕松理解。作者以簡單漂亮的繪圖作品構建大腦,令人印象深刻。每章結尾處附有思考題和繪圖練習,幫助加深理解。
作者简介
作者︰(美國)巴爾斯(Bernard J.Baars) (美國)Nicole M.Gage
书籍目录
前言
第1章 心智與腦
第2章 學科框架
第3章 神經元及其神經連接
第4章 研究工具︰活體的腦成像
第5章 腦
第6章 視覺
第7章 听覺與言語
第8章 意識和注意
第9章 學習和記憶
第10章 思維與問題解決
第11章 語言
第12章 目標、執行控制與行動
第13章 情緒
第14章 社會認知︰感知他人的心理狀態
第15章 發育
第16章 認知的基因和分子基礎
附錄︰活體腦觀察方法
章节摘录
版權頁︰   插圖︰    One example of this approach concerns the ability to discriminate speech-relevant sounds such as pho-nemes (see Chapter 7). Each human language has a set of sounds that map onto individual phonemes, which typically are conscripted within slashes: /p/, for example, to reflect the sounds (phones) that map onto the phoneme/p/. Recall the 'lack of invariance' prob-lem discussed in Chapter 7: the differing phonemes that are articulated before and after the articulation of /p/affect its acoustic features. Thus, there is not a sin-gle invariant physical property that uniquely defines /p/. Rather, the representation of the phoneme /p/must rely on some abstract (not just physical) features.This aspect of human speech has been exploited in speech perception studies where phonemes that differ in a single feature are prepared using speech synthe-sizing software to create a series of sounds that differ in graded steps between, for example, the phonemes /b/and/p/, which differ only in their initial voicing (vocal chord vibration). As English-speaking adults, if we were to listen to a graded phonetic transition from speech sounds 'ba'to 'pa', we would perceive the intermediates between /ba/and/pa/as being either one or the other. In other words, we show a categorical boundary between the two. Behavioral experiments have revealed that young babies also show enhanced (categorical) discrimination at phonetic boundaries used in speech such as /ba//pa/. That is, a graded phonetic transition from/ba/to/pa/is also perceived as a sudden categorical shift by infants. These observations initially caused excite-ment as evidence for a human speech perception-specific detection mechanism in humans. However,more recent research has shown that other species,such as chinchillas, show similar acoustical discrimi-nation abilities.
编辑推荐
  《神经科学研究与进展·认知、脑与意识:认知神经科学导论(全彩色版)(原著第2版)(导读版)》特点  全面、及时更新各章节相关的最新进展  针对读者反馈进行完善和修订  新增一章:认知的基因与分子生物学  前沿栏目介绍领域内知名研究者及其课题
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