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神經心理測評


图书基本信息
出版时间:2006-9
出版时间:世界圖書出版公司北京公司
作者:萊扎克
页数:1016
书名:神經心理測評
封面图片
神經心理測評
内容概要
這部廣受推崇的著作被稱為神經心理學領域的“聖經”,內容全面廣泛,包括對記憶、語言能力、概念形成、腦損傷、執行功能等多個方面的測驗,組織形式條理分明,語言深入淺出,非神經心理學家也完全能夠理解和使用。作者提供了各種工具及其在神經心理方面的應用的大量參考資料和當前信息,不僅對神經心理學家和本專業學生而言是實踐必不可少之物,也非常有助于臨床治療專家和患者增進對腦功能和行為的了解。本書前8章介紹了患者導向的神經心理測評的原理和實踐的知識基礎,後12章則對現有的幾乎所有測驗技術進行了討論和評價,比上一版增加了7000多條參考信息。
作者简介
Muriel D. Lezak于1960年在波蘭大學獲得博士學位,目前是俄勒岡健康科學大學的神經病學、精神病學和神經外科教授,她的專業興趣是臨床神經心理學和腦損傷,具有臨床心理學和臨床神經心理學兩個領域的從業資格。
书籍目录
Ⅰ 神經心理測評的理論與實踐 1. 神經心理測評與實踐 2. 基本概念 3. 腦的行為地理學 4. 測量神經功能缺損的基本原理 5. 神經心理檢查︰程序 6. 神經心理檢查︰解釋 7. 神經心理學家的神經病理學 8. 神經行為學變量和診斷問題 9. 傾向性和注意力Ⅱ 測驗和評價技術概要 10. 知覺 11. 記憶Ⅰ︰測驗 12. 記憶Ⅱ︰成套測驗、配對記憶測驗和問卷調查 13. 言語表達功能和語言技巧 14. 構造 15. 概念形成和推理 16. 執行功能和運動神經表現 17. 神經心理測評成套測驗 18. 觀察方法、等級評分表和測量問卷 19. 個人調整和情緒功能測驗 20. 反應偏差和不完全努力的測驗附錄︰測驗出版及發行機構參考文獻測驗索引主題索引
章节摘录
  However, laboratory studies of normal subjects and “split brain patients have shown that which hemisphere processes what depends on the relative weighting of many variables (Beaumont, 1997)。 In addition to underlying hemispheric organization, these include the nature of the task (e.g., modality, speed facto.rs,complexity),the subject’s set of expectancies, prior experiences with the task, previously developed perceptual or response strategies, and inherent subject variables such as sex and handedness (Bouma, 1990;Bryden, 1978; Kuhl, 2000; S。C。 Levine, 1995)。 Thus,in these subjects the degree to which henuspheric specialization occurs at any given time is a relative phenomenon rather than an absolute one (Hellige, 1995;L.C. Robertson,.1995; Sergent, 1991a; E.Zaidel, Clarke, and Suyenobu, 1990)。 Moreover, it is important to recognize that normal behavior is a function of the whole。 brain with important contributions from both hemispheres entering into every activity and emotional state。 Only laboratory studies of intact or split brain subjects or studies of persons,with lateralized brain damage demonstrate the differences m hemisphere function。  The most obvious functional difference between the hemispheres is that the left hemisphere in most people is dominant for speech (i.e., language functions are primarily mediated in the。left hemisphere) and the right hemisphere predominates in mediating complex, difficult-to-verbalize stimuli。 Absence of words does not make a stimulus “nonverbal。” Pictorial, diagrammatic, or design stimuli-sounds, sensations of touch and taste, etc。-may be more or less susceptible to verbal labeling depending on their meaningfulness, complexity, familiarity, potential for affective arousal, and other characteristics such as patterrung or number。  Thus, when classifying a wordless stimulus as verbal or nonverbal, it is important to take into account how readily it can be verbalized,  For most people the left hemisphere is the primary mediator of verbal functions (Indefrey and Levelt,2000), including reading and writing, understanding and speaking, verbal ideation, verbal memory, and even comprehension of verbal symbols traced on the skin。  The left hemisphere also mediates the numerical symbol system。 Moreover, left hemisphere lateralization extends to control of posturing and of sequencing hand and arm movements, and of the musculature of speech,although bilateral structures are involved。 Processing the linear and rapidly changing acoustic information needed for speech comprehension is better with the left than the right hemisphere (Beeman and Chiarello,1998; Howard, 1997; J. Schwartz and Tallal, 1980)。  Males show a stronger left hemisphere lateralization for phonological processing than females(Shaywitz et al., 1995; E. Zaidel, Aboitiz, et al., 1995)。  Right hemisphere language capacities have been demonstrated for comprehension of speech and written material, One significant contribution is the appreciation and integration of relationships in verbal discourse and narrative materials (Beeman and Chiarello,1998, passim; Delis, Wapner, et al., 1983; Kiehl et al.,  1999), which is a capaaty necessary for enjoying a good joke (Beeman, 1998; H. Gardner, 1994)。 The right hemisphere also ap。pears to provide the possibility of alternative meanings, getting away from purely literal“interpretations of verbal material (Bottini et al., 1994; Brownell and Martino, 1998; Fiore and Schooler,1998)。 Following commissurotomy, when speech is directed to the right hemisphere, much of what is heard is comprehended so long as it remains simple (Baynes and Eliassen, 1998; Searleman, 1977)。 Although functional imaging studies show a preponderance of left cerebral activity in reading (C.J. Price, 1997), not surprisingly, given its visuospatial components, reading also engages the right hemisphere, activating specific areas (Baruch and Nicholas, 1998; Gaillard and Converso, 1988; Huettner et al., 1989; Indefrey and Levelt, 2000; Ornstein et al., 1979)。 In contrast to the ability for rapid, automatic processing of printed words by the intact left hemisphere, the healthy right hemisphere takes a slower and generally inefficient letter by letter approach (C. Burgess and Lund, 1998; Chiarello,1988), which may be useful when word shapes have unfamiliar forms (Banich and Nicholas, 1998)。 The right hemisphere appears to have a reading lexicon (Bogen, 1997; Coslett and Saffran, 1998), but the more verbally adept left hemisphere normally blocks access to it so that the right hemisphere’s knowledge of words becomes evident only through labora)tory marupulations or with left hemisphere damage (Landis and Regard, 1988; Landis, Regard, et al., 1983)。 The right hemisphere seems to be sensitive to speech intonations(Borod, Bloom, and Santschi-Haywood, 1998; Ivry and Lebby, 1998), and is necessary for voice recognition (Van Lancker, Kreiman, and Cummings, 1989)。  Less can be said for the verbal expressive capacities of the right hemisphere since they are quite limited, as displayed-or rather, not displayed-by split brain patients who make few utterances in response to right bram stimulation (Baynes and Gazzaniga, 2000; E.  Zaidel, 1978)。 The right hemisphere appears to play a role in organizing verbal production conceptually (Brownell and Martino, 1998; Joanette et al., 1990), with specific temporal and prefrontal involvement in comprehending story meanings (Nichelli, Grafman, et a1.,.1995)。 It may be necessary for meaningfully expressive speech intonation (prosody) (Borod, Bloom, and Santsclu-Haywood, 1998; Filley, 1995; E.D. Ross,2000)。 The right hemisphere contributes to the maintenance of context-appropriate and emotionally appropriate verbal behavior (Brownell and Martino,1998; Joanette et al., 1990), although this contribution is not linuted to communications but extends to all behavior domains (Lezak, 1994)。 That the right hemisphere has a language capacity can also be inferred in aphasic patients with left-sided lesions who showed im provement from their immediate post-stroke deficits accompanied by measurably heightened right hemisphere activity (Frackowiak, 1997; B.T. Gold and Kertesz,2000; Heiss et al., 1999; Murdoch, 1990; Papanicolaou et al., 1988)。  The right hemisphere has also been erroneously called the “minor” or “nondominant” hemisphere because the often subtle character of right hemisphere disorders led early observers to believe that it played no specialized role in behavior。However, although limited linguistically, the right hemisphere is “fully human with respect to its cognitive depth and complexity (J. Levy, 1983)。  The right hemisphere dominates the processing of information that does not readily lend itself to verbalization。 This includes the reception and storage of visual data, tactile and visual recognition of shapes and forms, perception of spatial orientation and perspective, and copying and drawing geometric and representational designs and pictures。 The left hemisphere seems to predominate in metric distance judgments (Hellige, 1988; McCarthy and Warrington, 1990),while the right hemisphere has superiority in metric angle judgments (Benton, Sivan, et al., 1994; Mehta and Newcombe, 1996)。 Thus both hemispheres contribute to processing spatialinformation, with some differences in what they process most effiaently (Banich, 1995;Sergent, 1991b)。 Arithmetic calculations (involving spatial organization of the problem elements as distinct from left hemisphere-mediated linear arithmetic 。problems involving, for instance, stories or equations with an a + b = c form (Dehaene, 2000) have a sigruficant right hemisphere component (Grafman and Rickard,1997; H.S. Levin, Goldstein, and Spiers, 1993)。 Some aspects of musical ability are also localized on the right,as are abilities to recognize and discriminate nonverbal sounds (Bauer, 1993;Bauer and McDonald, 2003)。  The right hemisphere has bilateral involvement in so matosensory sensitivity and discrinunation。 It may be superior in distinguishing odors (Zatorre and Jones︰Gotman, 1990)。  ……
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