自從獲得愛荷華大學的博士學位之後，戴維?邁爾斯就在密歇根的霍普學院工作，成為那里的John Dirk Werkman心理學教授，並且開設了多門社會心理學的課程。霍普學院的學生邀請他在畢業典禮上發言並評選他為“最杰出的教授”。 邁爾斯曾在30多種科學書籍和期刊上發表過多篇論文，包括《科學》、《美國科學家》、《心理科學》和《美國心理學家》等。除了學術著作和教科書，同時他還致力于把心理科學介紹給廣大民眾。他在許多雜志上發表過科普類文章，如《今日教育》和《科學美國人》。 他撰寫的《心理學》（本書由著名心理學家黃希庭教授組織翻譯並審校，將于２006年出版，敬請期待）是當今最暢銷的心理學導論性教材，600多萬學生在用它來學習心理學。同樣，這本《社會心理學》在過去的10年中佔了將近30%的市場份額（社會心理學類書籍）。正如他在《心理學》第7版前言中所寫的，“我希望以一種充滿熱情的、富有個性的方式來講述心理學，而不僅僅用一種嚴謹的科學方式”。這應該就是他的教材如此受歡迎的秘訣吧。 戴維?邁爾斯還是城市人際關系委員會的主席，幫助創建了一個快速發展的協助中心，以扶助貧困家庭，同時他還去過數以百計的大學和社區做演講。憑借自己豐富的人生經歷，他還寫了有關听力喪失的一些文章和一本書（《無聲的世界》），而且他還倡導在美國進行一場助听技術革命（hearingloop.org）。
Chapter 1 Introducing Social PsychologyPart One Social ThinkingChapter 2 The Self in a Social WorldChapter 3 Social Beliefs and JudgmentsChapter 4 Behavior and AttitudesPart Two Social InfluenceChapter 5 Genes, Culture, and GenderChapter 6 Conformity and ObedienceChapter 7 PersuasionChapter 8 Group InfluencePart Three Social RelationsChapter 9 Prejudice: Disliking OthersChapter 10 Aggression: Hurting OthersChapter 11 Attraction and Intimacy: Liking and Loving OthersChapter 12 HelpingChapter 13 Conflict and PeacemakingPart Four Applying Social PsychologyChapter 14 Social Psychology in the ClinicChapter 15 Social Psychology in CourtChapter 16 Social Psychology and the Sustainable FutureEpilogueCredits C-References R-Name Index N-Subject Index/Glossary S-mye31898_FM_00i_xxxiii.qxd 10/20/06 12:08 PM Page viiixTable of ContentsChapterIntroducing Social PsychologyWhat Is Social Psychology?Social Psychology’s Big IdeasWe construct our social realityOur social intuitions are often powerful butsometimes perilousSocial influences shape our behaviorPersonal attitudes and dispositions also shape behaviorSocial behavior is biologically rootedSocial psychology’s principles are applicable ineveryday lifeSocial Psychology and Human ValuesObvious ways values enter psychologyNot-so-obvious ways values enter psychologyI knew it all along: Is social psychologysimply common sense?Focus On: I knew it all alongResearch Methods: How We DoSocial PsychologyForming and testing hypothesesCorrelational research: Detecting natural associationsExperimental research: Searching for cause and effectGeneralizing from laboratory to lifePostscript: Why I Wrote This BookPart One Social ThinkingChapterThe Self in a Social WorldSpotlights and IllusionsResearch Close-Up: On being nervousabout looking nervousSelf-Concept: Who Am I?At the center of our worlds: Our sense of selfDevelopment of the social selfSelf and cultureSelf-knowledgeThe Inside Story: Hazel Markus andShinobu Kitayama on cultural psychologyResearch Close-Up: An illusion ofconscious willSelf-EsteemSelf-esteem motivationThe “dark side” of self-esteemPerceived Self-ControlSelf-efficacyLocus of controlLearned helplessness versus self-determinationSelf-Serving BiasExplaining positive and negative eventsCan we all be better than average?Focus On: Self-serving bias—How do Ilove me? Let me count the waysUnrealistic optimismFalse consensus and uniquenessExplaining self-serving biasReflections on self-esteem and self-serving biasSelf-PresentationFalse modestySelf-handicappingImpression managementPostscript: Twin Truths—The Perils of Pride,the Powers of Positive ThinkingChapterSocial Beliefs and JudgmentsPerceiving Our Social WorldPrimingPerceiving and interpreting eventsBelief perseveranceConstructing memories of ourselves andour worldsJudging Our Social WorldIntuitive judgmentsOverconfidenceHeuristics: Mental shortcutsIllusory thinkingResearch Close-Up: Negative emotionsmake pessimistic investorsMoods and judgmentsExplaining Our Social WorldAttributing causality: To the person or the situationThe fundamental attribution errorixxiExpectations of Our Social WorldFocus On: The self-fulfilling psychology ofthe stock marketTeacher expectations and student performanceGetting from others what we expectConclusionsFocus On: How journalists think:Cognitive bias in newsmakingPostscript: Reflecting on Illusory ThinkingChapterBehavior and AttitudesHow Well Do Our Attitudes Predict OurBehavior?When attitudes predict behaviorThe Inside Story: Mahzarin R. Banaji ondiscovering experimental social psychologyResearch Close-Up: You’ve not got mail: Prejudicialattitudes predict discriminatory behaviorWhen Does Our Behavior Affect OurAttitudes?Role playingWhen saying becomes believingFocus On: Saying becomes believingThe foot-in-the-door phenomenonEvil and moral actsInterracial behavior and racial attitudesSocial movementsWhy Does Our Behavior Affect Our Attitudes?Self-presentation: Impression managementSelf-justification: Cognitive dissonanceThe Inside Story: Leon Festinger ondissonance reductionSelf-perceptionComparing the theoriesPostscript: Changing Ourselves ThroughActionPart Two Social InfluenceChapterGenes, Culture, and GenderHow Are We Influenced by Human Nature andCultural Diversity?Genes, evolution, and behaviorCulture and behaviorFocus On: The cultural animalResearch Close-Up: Passing encounters,East and WestHow Are Gender Similarities and DifferencesExplained?Independence versus connectednessSocial dominanceAggressionSexualityEvolution and Gender: Doing What ComesNaturally?Gender and mating preferencesReflections on evolutionary psychologyFocus On: Evolutionary science and religionGender and hormonesCulture and Gender: Doing as the CultureSays?Gender roles vary with cultureGender roles vary over timePeer-transmitted cultureWhat Can We Conclude about Genes, Culture,and Gender?Biology and cultureThe Inside Story: Alice Eagly on gendersimilarities and differencesThe power of the situation and the personPostscript: Should We View Ourselves asProducts or Architects of Our SocialWorlds?ChapterConformity and ObedienceWhat Is Conformity?What Are the Classic Conformity andObedience Studies?Sherif’s studies of norm formationResearch Close-Up: Contagious yawningAsch’s studies of group pressureFocus On: Mass delusionsMilgram’s obedience experimentsFocus On: Personalizing the victimsWhat breeds obedience?Reflections on the classic studiesThe Inside Story: Stanley Milgram onobedienceWhat Predicts Conformity?Group sizeUnanimityCohesionStatusPublic responseNo prior commitmentx Table of Contentsmye31898_FM_00i_xxxiii.qxd 10/27/06 12:25 PM Page xmye31898_xiiWhy Conform?Who Conforms?PersonalityCultureSocial rolesDo We Ever Want to Be Different?ReactanceAsserting uniquenessPostscript: On Being an Individual withinCommunityChapterPersuasionWhat Paths Lead to Persuasion?The central routeThe peripheral routeDifferent routes for different purposesWhat Are the Elements of Persuasion?Who says? The communicatorResearch Close-Up: Experimenting with avirtual social realityWhat is said? The message contentHow is it said? The channel of communicationTo whom is it said? The audienceExtreme Persuasion: How Do CultsIndoctrinate?Attitudes follow behaviorPersuasive elementsGroup effectsHow Can Persuasion be Resisted?Strengthening personal commitmentThe Inside Story:William McGuire onattitude inoculationReal-life applications: Inoculation programsImplications of attitude inoculationPostscript: Being Open but Not NaiveChapterGroup InfluenceWhat Is a Group?Social Facilitation: How Are We Affected bythe Presence of Others?The mere presence of othersCrowding: The presence of many othersWhy are we aroused in the presence of others?Social Loafing: Do Individuals Exert LessEffort in a Group?Many hands make light workSocial loafing in everyday lifeDeindividuation: When Do People Lose TheirSense of Self in Groups?Doing together what we would not do aloneDiminished self-awarenessGroup Polarization: Do Groups Intensify OurOpinions?The case of the “risky shift”Do groups intensify opinions?Focus On: Group polarizationExplaining polarizationGroupthink: Do Groups Hinder or Assist GoodDecisions?The Inside Story: Irving Janis on groupthinkSymptoms of groupthinkCritiquing the concept of groupthinkPreventing groupthinkGroup problem solvingThe Inside Story: Behind a Nobel Prize:Two minds are better than oneThe Influence of the Minority: How DoIndividuals Influence the Group?ConsistencySelf-confidenceDefections from the majorityIs leadership minority influence?Focus On: Transformational communityleadershipPostscript: Are Groups Bad for Us?Part Three Social RelationsChapterPrejudice: Disliking OthersWhat Is the Nature and Power of Prejudice?Defining prejudicePrejudice: Subtle and overtRacial prejudiceGender prejudiceWhat Are the Social Sources of Prejudice?Social inequalities: Unequal status and prejudiceSocializationInstitutional supportsTable of Contents ximye31898_FM_00i_xxxiii.qxd 10/27/06 12:25 PM Page xixiiiWhat Are the Motivational Sourcesof Prejudice?Frustration and aggression: The scapegoat theorySocial identity theory: Feeling superior to othersMotivation to avoid prejudiceWhat Are the Cognitive Sources of Prejudice?Categorization: Classifying people into groupsDistinctiveness: Perceiving people who stand outAttribution: Is it a just world?What Are the Consequences of Prejudice?Self-perpetuating stereotypesDiscrimination’s impact: The self-fulfillingprophecyStereotype threatThe Inside Story: Claude Steele onstereotype threatDo stereotypes bias judgments of individuals?Postscript: Can We Reduce Prejudice?ChapterAggression: Hurting OthersWhat Is Aggression?What Are Some Theories of Aggression?Aggression as a biological phenomenonAggression as a response to frustrationAggression as learned social behaviorWhat Are Some Influences on Aggression?Aversive incidentsArousalAggression cuesMedia influences: Pornography and sexual violenceMedia influences: TelevisionMedia influences: Video gamesThe Inside Story: Craig Anderson on videogame violenceGroup influencesResearch Close-Up: When provoked, aregroups more aggressive than individuals?How Can Aggression Be Reduced?Catharsis?Focus On: Clinical researcher MartinSeligman looks at catharsisA social learning approachPostscript: Reforming a Violent CultureChapterAttraction and Intimacy:Liking and Loving OthersWhat Leads to Friendship and Attraction?ProximityFocus On: Liking things associated withoneselfPhysical attractivenessThe Inside Story: Ellen Berscheid onattractivenessSimilarity versus complementarityThe Inside Story: James Jones on culturaldiversityLiking those who like usFocus On: Bad is stronger than goodRelationship rewardsWhat Is Love?Passionate loveCompanionate loveWhat Enables Close Relationships?AttachmentEquitySelf-disclosureFocus On: Does the Internet createintimacy or isolation?How Do Relationships End?DivorceThe detachment processPostscript: Making LoveChapterHelpingWhy Do We Help?Social exchange and social normsThe Inside Story: Dennis Krebs on lifeexperience and professional interestsEvolutionary psychologyComparing and evaluating theories of helpingGenuine altruismFocus On: The benefits—and the costs—of empathy-induced altruismWhen Will We Help?Number of bystandersThe Inside Story: John M. Darley onbystander reactionsHelping when someone else doesxii Table of Contentsmye31898_FM_00i_xxxiii.qxd 10/20/06 12:08 PM Page xiimye31898_xivTime pressuresSimilarityResearch Close-Up: Ingroup similarity andhelpingWho Will Help?Personality traitsReligious faithHow Can We Increase Helping?Reduce ambiguity, increase responsibilityGuilt and concern for self-imageSocializing altruismFocus On: Behavior and attitudes amongrescuers of JewsPostscript: Taking Social Psychology into LifeChapterConflict and PeacemakingWhat Creates Conflict?Social dilemmasCompetitionPerceived injusticeMisperceptionResearch Close-Up: Misperception and warHow Can Peace Be Achieved?ContactResearch Close-Up: Relationships thatmight have beenCooperationFocus On: Why do we care who wins?Focus On: Branch Rickey, Jackie Robinson,and the integration of baseballCommunicationConciliationPostscript: The Conflict between Individualand Communal RightsPart Four Applying SocialPsychologyChapterSocial Psychology in the ClinicWhat Influences the Accuracy of ClinicalJudgments?Illusory correlationsHindsight and overconfidenceSelf-confirming diagnosesClinical versus statistical predictionImplications for better clinical practiceFocus On: A physician’s viewWhat Cognitive Processes AccompanyBehavior Problems?DepressionThe Inside Story: Shelley Taylor onpositive illusionsLonelinessAnxiety and shynessHealth, illness, and deathWhat Are Some Social-PsychologicalApproaches to Treatment?Inducing internal change through externalbehaviorBreaking vicious circlesMaintaining change through internalattributions for successUsing therapy as social influenceHow Do Social Relationships Support Healthand Well-Being?Close relationships and healthClose relationships and happinessPostscript: Enhancing HappinessChapterSocial Psychology in CourtHow Reliable Is Eyewitness Testimony?The power of persuasive eyewitnessesWhen eyes deceiveThe misinformation effectFocus On: Eyewitness testimonyRetellingReducing errorResearch Close-Up: Feedback to witnessesWhat Other Factors Influence JurorJudgments?The defendant’s characteristicsThe judge’s instructionsAdditional factorsWhat Influences the Individual Juror?Juror comprehensionJury selection“Death-qualified” jurorsTable of Contents xiiimye31898_FM_00i_xxxiii.qxd 10/20/06 12:08 PM Page xiiixvxiv Table of ContentsHow Do Group Influences Affect Juries?Minority influenceGroup polarizationLeniencyResearch Close-Up: Group polarization in anatural court settingAre twelve heads better than one?Are six heads as good as twelve?From lab to life: Simulated and real juriesPostscript: Thinking Smart withPsychological ScienceChapterSocial Psychology andthe Sustainable FutureAn Environmental Call to ActionEnabling Sustainable LivingNew technologiesReducing consumptionThe Social Psychology of Materialismand WealthIncreased materialismWealth and well-beingMaterialism fails to satisfyFocus On: Social comparison, belonging,and happinessToward sustainability and survivalResearch Close-Up: Measuring nationalwell-beingPostscript: How Does One Live Responsiblyin the Modern World?EpilogueCredits C-References R-Name Index N-Subject Index/Glossary S-mye31898_FM_00i_xxxiii.qxd 10/20/06 12:08 PM Page xivmye31898_xvi
版權頁︰ 插圖︰ Dozens of studies in Europe, North America, Australia, and South Africa showthat mistakes also subside when witnesses simply make individual yes or no judg-ments in response to a sequence of people （Lindsay & Wells, 1985; Meissner & oth-ers, 2005; Steblay & others, 2001）. A simultaneous lineup tempts people to pick theperson who, among the lineup members, most resembles the perpetrator. Wit-nesses viewing just one suspect at a hme are less likely to make false identifications.If witnesses view a group of photos or people simultaneously, they are more likelyto choose whoever most resembles the culprit. （When not given a same-race lineup,witnesses may pick someone of the culprit's race, especially when it's a differentrace from their own （Wells & Olson, 2001）.） With a "sequential lineup," eyewit-nesses compare each person with their memory of the culprit and make an absolutedecision-match or no-match （Gronlund, 2004a, 2004b）. These no-cost procedures make police lineups more like good experiments.They contain a control group （a no-suspect lineup or a lineup in which mock wit-nesses try to guess the suspect based merely on a general description）. They havean experimenter who is blind to the hypothesis （an officer who doesn-tyknowwhich person is the suspect）. Questions are scripted and neutral, so they don'tsubtly demand a particular response （the procedure doesn't imply the culprit isin the lineup）. And they prohibit confidence-inflating post-lineup comments（"you got him"） prior to trial testimony. Such procedures greatly reduce the nat-ural human confirmation bias （having an idea and seeking confirming evi-dence）. Lineups can also now be effectively administered by computers （MacLin& others, 2005）. Although procedures such as double-blind testing are common in psycholog-ical science, they are still uncommon in criminal procedures （Wells & Olson,2003）. But their time may be coming. New Jersey's attorney general has man-dated statewide blind testing （to avoid steering witnesses toward suspects） andsequentiallineups （to minimize simply comparing people and choosing the per-son who most resembles the one they saw commit a crime） （Kolata & Peterson,2001; Wells & others, 2002）. Police might also use a new procedure tested by SeanPryke, Rod Lindsay, and colleagues （2004）. They invited students to identify aprior class visitor from multiple lineups that separately presented face, body,and voice samples. Their finding: An eyewitness who consistently identified thesame suspect-by face, by body, and byy voice-was nearly always an accurateeyewitness.
社會科學 PDF/TXT下载|社科圖書网 @ 2018