首页 | 网站地图
首页 > 心理學 > 社會心理學

社會心理學


图书基本信息
出版时间:2012-5
出版时间:人民郵電出版社
作者:戴维·迈尔斯
页数:752
书名:社會心理學
封面图片
社會心理學
内容概要
  社會心理學(英文版足本,第9版)是邁爾斯暢銷全球的《社會心理學》2008年的第9版英文本的影印版,該書在美國被700多所學及學院心理系所采用,是這一領域當之無愧的主導教材,已經成為評價其他同類教材的標準。
  本書將基礎研究與實踐應用完美地的結合在一起,以富有邏輯性的組織結構引領學生了解人們是如何探索、影響他人並與他人建立聯系的。是人們了解自身、了解社會、了解自身與社會之間關系的最佳指導性書籍。
作者简介
  自從獲得愛荷華大學的博士學位之後,戴維?邁爾斯就在密歇根的霍普學院工作,成為那里的John Dirk Werkman
心理學教授,並且開設了多門社會心理學的課程。霍普學院的學生邀請他在畢業典禮上發言並評選他為“最杰出的教授”。
  邁爾斯曾在30多種科學書籍和期刊上發表過多篇論文,包括《科學》、《美國科學家》、《心理科學》和《美國心理學家》等。除了學術著作和教科書,同時他還致力于把心理科學介紹給廣大民眾。他在許多雜志上發表過科普類文章,如《今日教育》和《科學美國人》。
  他撰寫的《心理學》(本書由著名心理學家黃希庭教授組織翻譯並審校,將于2006年出版,敬請期待)是當今最暢銷的心理學導論性教材,600多萬學生在用它來學習心理學。同樣,這本《社會心理學》在過去的10年中佔了將近30%的市場份額(社會心理學類書籍)。正如他在《心理學》第7版前言中所寫的,“我希望以一種充滿熱情的、富有個性的方式來講述心理學,而不僅僅用一種嚴謹的科學方式”。這應該就是他的教材如此受歡迎的秘訣吧。
  戴維?邁爾斯還是城市人際關系委員會的主席,幫助創建了一個快速發展的協助中心,以扶助貧困家庭,同時他還去過數以百計的大學和社區做演講。憑借自己豐富的人生經歷,他還寫了有關听力喪失的一些文章和一本書(《無聲的世界》),而且他還倡導在美國進行一場助听技術革命(hearingloop.org)。
书籍目录
Chapter 1 Introducing Social Psychology
Part One Social Thinking
Chapter 2 The Self in a Social World
Chapter 3 Social Beliefs and Judgments
Chapter 4 Behavior and Attitudes
Part Two Social Influence
Chapter 5 Genes, Culture, and Gender
Chapter 6 Conformity and Obedience
Chapter 7 Persuasion
Chapter 8 Group Influence
Part Three Social Relations
Chapter 9 Prejudice: Disliking Others
Chapter 10 Aggression: Hurting Others
Chapter 11 Attraction and Intimacy: Liking and Loving Others
Chapter 12 Helping
Chapter 13 Conflict and Peacemaking
Part Four Applying Social Psychology
Chapter 14 Social Psychology in the Clinic
Chapter 15 Social Psychology in Court
Chapter 16 Social Psychology and the Sustainable Future
Epilogue
Credits C-
References R-
Name Index N-
Subject Index/Glossary S-
mye31898_FM_00i_xxxiii.qxd 10/20/06 12:08 PM Page vii
ix
Table of Contents
Chapter
Introducing Social Psychology
What Is Social Psychology?
Social Psychology’s Big Ideas
We construct our social reality
Our social intuitions are often powerful but
sometimes perilous
Social influences shape our behavior
Personal attitudes and dispositions also shape behavior
Social behavior is biologically rooted
Social psychology’s principles are applicable in
everyday life
Social Psychology and Human Values
Obvious ways values enter psychology
Not-so-obvious ways values enter psychology
I knew it all along: Is social psychology
simply common sense?
Focus On: I knew it all along
Research Methods: How We Do
Social Psychology
Forming and testing hypotheses
Correlational research: Detecting natural associations
Experimental research: Searching for cause and effect
Generalizing from laboratory to life
Postscript: Why I Wrote This Book
Part One Social Thinking
Chapter
The Self in a Social World
Spotlights and Illusions
Research Close-Up: On being nervous
about looking nervous
Self-Concept: Who Am I?
At the center of our worlds: Our sense of self
Development of the social self
Self and culture
Self-knowledge
The Inside Story: Hazel Markus and
Shinobu Kitayama on cultural psychology
Research Close-Up: An illusion of
conscious will
Self-Esteem
Self-esteem motivation
The “dark side” of self-esteem
Perceived Self-Control
Self-efficacy
Locus of control
Learned helplessness versus self-determination
Self-Serving Bias
Explaining positive and negative events
Can we all be better than average?
Focus On: Self-serving bias—How do I
love me? Let me count the ways
Unrealistic optimism
False consensus and uniqueness
Explaining self-serving bias
Reflections on self-esteem and self-serving bias
Self-Presentation
False modesty
Self-handicapping
Impression management
Postscript: Twin Truths—The Perils of Pride,
the Powers of Positive Thinking
Chapter
Social Beliefs and Judgments
Perceiving Our Social World
Priming
Perceiving and interpreting events
Belief perseverance
Constructing memories of ourselves and
our worlds
Judging Our Social World
Intuitive judgments
Overconfidence
Heuristics: Mental shortcuts
Illusory thinking
Research Close-Up: Negative emotions
make pessimistic investors
Moods and judgments
Explaining Our Social World
Attributing causality: To the person or the situation
The fundamental attribution error
ix
xi
Expectations of Our Social World
Focus On: The self-fulfilling psychology of
the stock market
Teacher expectations and student performance
Getting from others what we expect
Conclusions
Focus On: How journalists think:
Cognitive bias in newsmaking
Postscript: Reflecting on Illusory Thinking
Chapter
Behavior and Attitudes
How Well Do Our Attitudes Predict Our
Behavior?
When attitudes predict behavior
The Inside Story: Mahzarin R. Banaji on
discovering experimental social psychology
Research Close-Up: You’ve not got mail: Prejudicial
attitudes predict discriminatory behavior
When Does Our Behavior Affect Our
Attitudes?
Role playing
When saying becomes believing
Focus On: Saying becomes believing
The foot-in-the-door phenomenon
Evil and moral acts
Interracial behavior and racial attitudes
Social movements
Why Does Our Behavior Affect Our Attitudes?
Self-presentation: Impression management
Self-justification: Cognitive dissonance
The Inside Story: Leon Festinger on
dissonance reduction
Self-perception
Comparing the theories
Postscript: Changing Ourselves Through
Action
Part Two Social Influence
Chapter
Genes, Culture, and Gender
How Are We Influenced by Human Nature and
Cultural Diversity?
Genes, evolution, and behavior
Culture and behavior
Focus On: The cultural animal
Research Close-Up: Passing encounters,
East and West
How Are Gender Similarities and Differences
Explained?
Independence versus connectedness
Social dominance
Aggression
Sexuality
Evolution and Gender: Doing What Comes
Naturally?
Gender and mating preferences
Reflections on evolutionary psychology
Focus On: Evolutionary science and religion
Gender and hormones
Culture and Gender: Doing as the Culture
Says?
Gender roles vary with culture
Gender roles vary over time
Peer-transmitted culture
What Can We Conclude about Genes, Culture,
and Gender?
Biology and culture
The Inside Story: Alice Eagly on gender
similarities and differences
The power of the situation and the person
Postscript: Should We View Ourselves as
Products or Architects of Our Social
Worlds?
Chapter
Conformity and Obedience
What Is Conformity?
What Are the Classic Conformity and
Obedience Studies?
Sherif’s studies of norm formation
Research Close-Up: Contagious yawning
Asch’s studies of group pressure
Focus On: Mass delusions
Milgram’s obedience experiments
Focus On: Personalizing the victims
What breeds obedience?
Reflections on the classic studies
The Inside Story: Stanley Milgram on
obedience
What Predicts Conformity?
Group size
Unanimity
Cohesion
Status
Public response
No prior commitment
x Table of Contents
mye31898_FM_00i_xxxiii.qxd 10/27/06 12:25 PM Page x
mye31898_xii
Why Conform?
Who Conforms?
Personality
Culture
Social roles
Do We Ever Want to Be Different?
Reactance
Asserting uniqueness
Postscript: On Being an Individual within
Community
Chapter
Persuasion
What Paths Lead to Persuasion?
The central route
The peripheral route
Different routes for different purposes
What Are the Elements of Persuasion?
Who says? The communicator
Research Close-Up: Experimenting with a
virtual social reality
What is said? The message content
How is it said? The channel of communication
To whom is it said? The audience
Extreme Persuasion: How Do Cults
Indoctrinate?
Attitudes follow behavior
Persuasive elements
Group effects
How Can Persuasion be Resisted?
Strengthening personal commitment
The Inside Story:William McGuire on
attitude inoculation
Real-life applications: Inoculation programs
Implications of attitude inoculation
Postscript: Being Open but Not Naive
Chapter
Group Influence
What Is a Group?
Social Facilitation: How Are We Affected by
the Presence of Others?
The mere presence of others
Crowding: The presence of many others
Why are we aroused in the presence of others?
Social Loafing: Do Individuals Exert Less
Effort in a Group?
Many hands make light work
Social loafing in everyday life
Deindividuation: When Do People Lose Their
Sense of Self in Groups?
Doing together what we would not do alone
Diminished self-awareness
Group Polarization: Do Groups Intensify Our
Opinions?
The case of the “risky shift”
Do groups intensify opinions?
Focus On: Group polarization
Explaining polarization
Groupthink: Do Groups Hinder or Assist Good
Decisions?
The Inside Story: Irving Janis on groupthink
Symptoms of groupthink
Critiquing the concept of groupthink
Preventing groupthink
Group problem solving
The Inside Story: Behind a Nobel Prize:
Two minds are better than one
The Influence of the Minority: How Do
Individuals Influence the Group?
Consistency
Self-confidence
Defections from the majority
Is leadership minority influence?
Focus On: Transformational community
leadership
Postscript: Are Groups Bad for Us?
Part Three Social Relations
Chapter
Prejudice: Disliking Others
What Is the Nature and Power of Prejudice?
Defining prejudice
Prejudice: Subtle and overt
Racial prejudice
Gender prejudice
What Are the Social Sources of Prejudice?
Social inequalities: Unequal status and prejudice
Socialization
Institutional supports
Table of Contents xi
mye31898_FM_00i_xxxiii.qxd 10/27/06 12:25 PM Page xi
xiii
What Are the Motivational Sources
of Prejudice?
Frustration and aggression: The scapegoat theory
Social identity theory: Feeling superior to others
Motivation to avoid prejudice
What Are the Cognitive Sources of Prejudice?
Categorization: Classifying people into groups
Distinctiveness: Perceiving people who stand out
Attribution: Is it a just world?
What Are the Consequences of Prejudice?
Self-perpetuating stereotypes
Discrimination’s impact: The self-fulfilling
prophecy
Stereotype threat
The Inside Story: Claude Steele on
stereotype threat
Do stereotypes bias judgments of individuals?
Postscript: Can We Reduce Prejudice?
Chapter
Aggression: Hurting Others
What Is Aggression?
What Are Some Theories of Aggression?
Aggression as a biological phenomenon
Aggression as a response to frustration
Aggression as learned social behavior
What Are Some Influences on Aggression?
Aversive incidents
Arousal
Aggression cues
Media influences: Pornography and sexual violence
Media influences: Television
Media influences: Video games
The Inside Story: Craig Anderson on video
game violence
Group influences
Research Close-Up: When provoked, are
groups more aggressive than individuals?
How Can Aggression Be Reduced?
Catharsis?
Focus On: Clinical researcher Martin
Seligman looks at catharsis
A social learning approach
Postscript: Reforming a Violent Culture
Chapter
Attraction and Intimacy:
Liking and Loving Others
What Leads to Friendship and Attraction?
Proximity
Focus On: Liking things associated with
oneself
Physical attractiveness
The Inside Story: Ellen Berscheid on
attractiveness
Similarity versus complementarity
The Inside Story: James Jones on cultural
diversity
Liking those who like us
Focus On: Bad is stronger than good
Relationship rewards
What Is Love?
Passionate love
Companionate love
What Enables Close Relationships?
Attachment
Equity
Self-disclosure
Focus On: Does the Internet create
intimacy or isolation?
How Do Relationships End?
Divorce
The detachment process
Postscript: Making Love
Chapter
Helping
Why Do We Help?
Social exchange and social norms
The Inside Story: Dennis Krebs on life
experience and professional interests
Evolutionary psychology
Comparing and evaluating theories of helping
Genuine altruism
Focus On: The benefits—and the costs—
of empathy-induced altruism
When Will We Help?
Number of bystanders
The Inside Story: John M. Darley on
bystander reactions
Helping when someone else does
xii Table of Contents
mye31898_FM_00i_xxxiii.qxd 10/20/06 12:08 PM Page xii
mye31898_xiv
Time pressures
Similarity
Research Close-Up: Ingroup similarity and
helping
Who Will Help?
Personality traits
Religious faith
How Can We Increase Helping?
Reduce ambiguity, increase responsibility
Guilt and concern for self-image
Socializing altruism
Focus On: Behavior and attitudes among
rescuers of Jews
Postscript: Taking Social Psychology into Life
Chapter
Conflict and Peacemaking
What Creates Conflict?
Social dilemmas
Competition
Perceived injustice
Misperception
Research Close-Up: Misperception and war
How Can Peace Be Achieved?
Contact
Research Close-Up: Relationships that
might have been
Cooperation
Focus On: Why do we care who wins?
Focus On: Branch Rickey, Jackie Robinson,
and the integration of baseball
Communication
Conciliation
Postscript: The Conflict between Individual
and Communal Rights
Part Four Applying Social
Psychology
Chapter
Social Psychology in the Clinic
What Influences the Accuracy of Clinical
Judgments?
Illusory correlations
Hindsight and overconfidence
Self-confirming diagnoses
Clinical versus statistical prediction
Implications for better clinical practice
Focus On: A physician’s view
What Cognitive Processes Accompany
Behavior Problems?
Depression
The Inside Story: Shelley Taylor on
positive illusions
Loneliness
Anxiety and shyness
Health, illness, and death
What Are Some Social-Psychological
Approaches to Treatment?
Inducing internal change through external
behavior
Breaking vicious circles
Maintaining change through internal
attributions for success
Using therapy as social influence
How Do Social Relationships Support Health
and Well-Being?
Close relationships and health
Close relationships and happiness
Postscript: Enhancing Happiness
Chapter
Social Psychology in Court
How Reliable Is Eyewitness Testimony?
The power of persuasive eyewitnesses
When eyes deceive
The misinformation effect
Focus On: Eyewitness testimony
Retelling
Reducing error
Research Close-Up: Feedback to witnesses
What Other Factors Influence Juror
Judgments?
The defendant’s characteristics
The judge’s instructions
Additional factors
What Influences the Individual Juror?
Juror comprehension
Jury selection
“Death-qualified” jurors
Table of Contents xiii
mye31898_FM_00i_xxxiii.qxd 10/20/06 12:08 PM Page xiii
xv
xiv Table of Contents
How Do Group Influences Affect Juries?
Minority influence
Group polarization
Leniency
Research Close-Up: Group polarization in a
natural court setting
Are twelve heads better than one?
Are six heads as good as twelve?
From lab to life: Simulated and real juries
Postscript: Thinking Smart with
Psychological Science
Chapter
Social Psychology and
the Sustainable Future
An Environmental Call to Action
Enabling Sustainable Living
New technologies
Reducing consumption
The Social Psychology of Materialism
and Wealth
Increased materialism
Wealth and well-being
Materialism fails to satisfy
Focus On: Social comparison, belonging,
and happiness
Toward sustainability and survival
Research Close-Up: Measuring national
well-being
Postscript: How Does One Live Responsibly
in the Modern World?
Epilogue
Credits C-
References R-
Name Index N-
Subject Index/Glossary S-
mye31898_FM_00i_xxxiii.qxd 10/20/06 12:08 PM Page xiv
mye31898_xvi
章节摘录
版權頁︰   插圖︰   Dozens of studies in Europe, North America, Australia, and South Africa showthat mistakes also subside when witnesses simply make individual yes or no judg-ments in response to a sequence of people (Lindsay & Wells, 1985; Meissner & oth-ers, 2005; Steblay & others, 2001). A simultaneous lineup tempts people to pick theperson who, among the lineup members, most resembles the perpetrator. Wit-nesses viewing just one suspect at a hme are less likely to make false identifications.If witnesses view a group of photos or people simultaneously, they are more likelyto choose whoever most resembles the culprit. (When not given a same-race lineup,witnesses may pick someone of the culprit's race, especially when it's a differentrace from their own (Wells & Olson, 2001).) With a "sequential lineup," eyewit-nesses compare each person with their memory of the culprit and make an absolutedecision-match or no-match (Gronlund, 2004a, 2004b). These no-cost procedures make police lineups more like good experiments.They contain a control group (a no-suspect lineup or a lineup in which mock wit-nesses try to guess the suspect based merely on a general description). They havean experimenter who is blind to the hypothesis (an officer who doesn-tyknowwhich person is the suspect). Questions are scripted and neutral, so they don'tsubtly demand a particular response (the procedure doesn't imply the culprit isin the lineup). And they prohibit confidence-inflating post-lineup comments("you got him") prior to trial testimony. Such procedures greatly reduce the nat-ural human confirmation bias (having an idea and seeking confirming evi-dence). Lineups can also now be effectively administered by computers (MacLin& others, 2005). Although procedures such as double-blind testing are common in psycholog-ical science, they are still uncommon in criminal procedures (Wells & Olson,2003). But their time may be coming. New Jersey's attorney general has man-dated statewide blind testing (to avoid steering witnesses toward suspects) andsequentiallineups (to minimize simply comparing people and choosing the per-son who most resembles the one they saw commit a crime) (Kolata & Peterson,2001; Wells & others, 2002). Police might also use a new procedure tested by SeanPryke, Rod Lindsay, and colleagues (2004). They invited students to identify aprior class visitor from multiple lineups that separately presented face, body,and voice samples. Their finding: An eyewitness who consistently identified thesame suspect-by face, by body, and byy voice-was nearly always an accurateeyewitness.
编辑推荐
《社会心理学(英文版本)(第9版)》是一本将生活和理论完美结合的经典之作,它是指导人们认识自我、了解社会、理解自己与社会之间关系的最佳书籍。当我最初应邀撰写《社会心理学》时。我立刻想到此书应该具有坚实的科学性和温暖的人性,具有事实精确性和智力启发性。作为作者,传播这门学科的知识对我来说是一件很快乐的事。如果我的礼物给你带来了任何的愉悦、激励和充实感的话,我的快乐就会倍增。 ——戴维•迈尔斯
PDF格式资源下载

 

 

爬虫代理IP   代理IP   好用代理IP   推荐代理IP   百变IP  


 
社會科學 PDF/TXT下载|社科圖書网 @ 2018